Sunday, May 24, 2020
The Damaging Effects of PowerPoints on Learning PowerPoint is a computer-assisted presentation program sold by Microsoft. No other presentation software product has ever come close to it in popularity (Hewett, 2008). Originally developed as a business tool designed to make corporate presentations more exciting and snappy, it has since been adopted by lecturers in all fields and organizations. It has been estimated that 30 million PowerPoint presentations are given each day (Frommer, 2012). For the most part, PowerPoint has been praised for its usefulness in presenting data and images, but, in recent years, a small number of critics have raised issues regarding the harm it might be doing. They say that PowerPoint actually interferes with learning by distracting audiences and overloading them with unnecessary and irrelevant information. A Brief History of PPTs PowerPoint was developed by two University of California graduate students in 1984. It was originally intended for use in AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s Macintosh computers (History of PowerPoint, 2015), but in 1987, the start-up company they were working for at the time was acquired by Microsoft, and so their product, which they called Presenter, became the property of Microsoft, which released it in 1990 as part of Windows 3.0 (Hewett, 2008). The Research There is a growing body of evidence that PPTÃ¢â¬â¢s do not improve learning. Szabo and Hastings (2000) presented the same lecture to two groups of students. The firstShow MoreRelatedThe Top Down Pressurers : External Imperatives799 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand mastery of basic skills, more student-centred learning and engagement in the learning processÃ¢â¬â¢. In short words, the more student-centred learning is promoted, the more teachers and technologies can improve the education and learning. Technology and teachers are adjustable and compatible since they can complement each other and increase their valuable practices mutually. Laurillard (2008) suggested that technology could bring collaborative learning for teachers, and now, we can add to her statementRead MoreThe Birth Of The Internet Has Made Our Lives Easier962 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshowever, we have lose the tactile way of learning. Some people, like me, learn through touch. When we went to the special collecti on center, I touched and smelled the books. They had a historical odor to them, unlike the books today. The pages of the antique books were thick and made of cloth. The books we use today still have a stench and unlike old books, the pages are glossy and thin. The two forms of media I used for presenting the text was PowerPoint and a journal. You can choose differentRead MorePowerPoint: An Efficient Tool Essay1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPowerPoint is probably the most popular digital aid tool for presentations. It was created by the giant software developer Microsoft and presented to the world for the very first time in 2000 according to MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s web page. On the article Ã¢â¬Å"PowerPoint: Killer App?Ã¢â¬ the author, Ruth Marcus, criticizes this application explaining the effects it is having on the way people makes and understands presentations these days, but she does not stay there with her critiques. She goes further and asserts thatRead MoreInc1 Science Rint Task 11255 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesScientific Concepts and the Natural World RINT Task 1 Western Governors University Free Powerpoint Templates Page 1 The EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s Plate Tectonics James Hutton was the first scientist to address the Earth was millions of years old, as well as alive and is continuously being formed. Charles Lyell popularized uniformitarianism, and believed the Earth was being shaped by slow moving forces. Alfred Wegener introduced the foundation for the theory of continental drift. Wegener was one of theRead MoreContent Of Class Instruction On The Movie A Civil Action 1072 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageschemical company W.R Grace; the companies involved in the water contamination issue. Aside from the movie, our class was also required to view the material in week three module 1. In this module, there was Amendments to TX ADR Statute, Self-Awareness PowerPoint, a questionnaire, and our weekly assignment. By reading the amendments to the Texas ADR Statute. I reinforced my knowledge about the Texas ADR material from the previous two weeks. By continually reading about ADR I am able to retain the informationRead MoreEffects of Powerpoint Presentation in the Academic Performance of the Senior Students in Madapdap High School3698 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesEffect of PowerPoint Presentation in the Academic Achievement of the Senior Students of Madapdap Rest. High School in Physics In partial fulfilment of the requirement for the subject Elective 2 Current Trends and Researches in Science Teaching Submitted by: Jeffrey R. Yumang MAEd-General Science Submitted to: Dr. Jacqueline V. Bagunu Acknowledgement Foremost, I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to our Professor Dr. Jacqueline V. Bagunu for her patience, motivation, enthusiasmRead MoreEffects Of The Home Environment And Parental Attitudes On Student Learning1646 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageseducational conundrum: What are the effects of the home environment and parental attitudes on student learning? In our presentation, we examined two contrasting views. Are there real limits to what teachers and educational institutions can accomplish? Or are teachers the most stable component in a young personÃ¢â¬â¢s life? These opposing perspectives were demonstrated through an introductory skit which set the tone for the rest of the presentation. In truth, learning begins well before children enterRead MoreStroop Lab Report1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages they found that words had a stronger interference than pictures for the participants in the study that feared spiders than children who did not fear spiders (Kindt Brosschot, 1999). These results show that pictures have less of an interference effect when dealing with fear and in the present experiment it is not fear being used it is attractiveness of animals. Another emotional Stroop task was done by Todd A. Kahan and Charles D. Hely in testing the valence and frequency and their role in emotionalRead MoreEssay on PowerPoint in Education1948 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesPowerPoint in Education Over the years education has been making rapid technological advances, it seems like every year there is some new tool entering the classroom. Most of us today dont remember when classrooms were using chalk and slate boards because of the new technology that we have developed. Now we have grown accustom to overheard projectors, television and computers, but what seems to be the new trend of education is Power Point. It is every where we turn, more than 90% of computer-basedRead MoreHow Technology Can Enhance His Students Understanding Of Math And Science Concepts1107 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesScience lessons, they often engage in learning through a document camera presentation, computer lab activity, IPad research, PowerPoints, and educational videos. My CT tried to use various types of concept delivery to keep his students engaged in the concept being taught. When the students were learning about lifecycles of animals, the students were taught with all of the different types of techn ology listed. My CT would use a document camera or a PowerPoint to teach his Science lessons. The document
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Master the Skill of APA Style Essay Writing The peculiar feature for every academic writing assignment is the citation style. In various schools, colleges and universities there are different requirements as for the referencing format. The most common however are APA style essays. With the distinguished system of citation organization this tends to be the most popular among educationists especially in the United States. If you check the APA style essay example you will see how it differs from the rest of citation formats. It requires a title page unlike MLA which is a must for the majority of academic papers in most universities. It of course takes years of practice to master this format, however once done it will serve you a good deal easing your writing since it can be applied for almost any paper starting with regular APA essays, application essays, projects, research papers, reviews and up to such large projects like dissertation and thesis papers. Problems That Can Arise While Preparing APA Essay APA citation has several editions that causes great confusion among students; APA requires title page that seems to be piece of cake but brings many troubles to students; referencing various sources differs from one another; in-text citations require attention and knowledge of the format; Though APA is considered to be the most popular and commonly accepted citation style sometimes students can be facing trouble with it. For instance one of the major reasons is that the APA referencing format has been published in several editions which implement minor but important differences. With this at hand a student often gets confused and mixes up several editions for their APA essay writing. In many universities a title page is a requirement as well as for an APA style essay, but no matter how easy it seems to complete it still brings many troubles to students that either forget to put a date on it or put the name of the school at the bottom. At the same time for professors the title page is the face of your APA essay. Writing this works involves using materials from various sources that can be both printed and electronic. Into the reference list articles, books, journals, web sites and newspapers are all entered differently providing the full spectrum of information about th e source for the reader. Online APA Essay Help most students facing problems with correct referencing simply go online for professional help the writers who have completed hundreds of APA essays will definitely know how to cite your paper; we cooperate only with the most proficient academic writers in order to assure you proper citation format; Nobody likes stressful situations when you have written a respectively good essay but it keeps on returning to you for revisions because of the wrong citation format. In these cases most students simply go online to search for APA essay example. Along with that there exist online academic essay writing services that are able to provide wide range of services to help you with your APA essay. At our company we cooperate only with the most proficient academic experts in order to assure you proper APA essay format along with a great paper. It is obvious that the writers that have completed hundreds of APA essays will definitely know how to cite your paper. We offer not only editing or rewriting for APA style but also writing the correctly referenced papers from scratch. Try Our Exclusive Service and Choose Your Own APA Essay Writer search through our large database of freelance writers to find the writer with the best knowledge of APA style; choosing the essay writer from the list of those who accept your paper requirements is very convenient; live support is there to help you with any questions around the clock; In order to prove our customers that ordering APA essay writing is easy, convenient and secure, there has been developed a system that has a basically new concept and allows you personally to influence the process as the writer is being selected and assigned. After you preview any APA essay example at our site you are welcome to search through our large database of freelance writers to find the writer with the best knowledge of APA essay format. The database will show you the strong and weak sides of every writer along with their scores and customer satisfaction rates. There is also another option that will be interesting for you. It is the open bid feature that allows choosing the writer from the list of those who accept your paper requirements. You simply upload the instructions for your paper, writers interested in working with you apply to it and finally you select the one who appeals to you most.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
ABSTRACT Residual stresses [1, 2] are of great importance in any manufacturing industry as it plays a major role in determining the structural integrity of the component being engineered. Residual stresses highly influence the strength, stability, resistance, fatigue life and performance of the component manufactured. These properties being affected leads to failure and repair of the component or the entire structure. Hence it is essential to measure the residual stresses present in a component and to relax these stresses to improve the performance and reliability of the component. A residual stress analysis in design phase is compulsory in order to estimate the reliability of the component . Many residual stress measurement techniques have been developed for a reliable assessment of the residual stresses. The methods are classified into destructive and non-destructive based on the practical application of the method employed on the component under study. Non-destructive techniques are preferred over destructive as they do not damage the material or specimen under study . In recent years many techniques have emerged to facilitate the destructive measurement techniques. The aim of this report is to review the destructive methods used for residual stress measurement and the recent developments of measurement techniques favoring destructive methods. iii DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to my beloved wife, Nithya and my daughter, Lakshana for their love and encouragementShow MoreRelatedOverview of Hrm93778 Words Ã |Ã 376 Pagesmain things, i.e. the introduction to HRM, the importance of HRM, and a brief discussion of the Resource topics that will follow todayÃ¢â¬â¢s lecture. A basic concept of management states that manager works in organizations. Organization has three basic components, People, Purpose, and Structure. HRM is the study of activates regarding people working in an Human organization. It is a managerial function that tries to match an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s needs to the skills and abilities of its employees. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s see whatRead MoreManagement Control Systems Pdf115000 Words Ã |Ã 460 PagesControl Process, Characteristics of a Good Management Control System, Distinction between Strategy Formulation, Management Control and Task Control Ã¢â¬â Types of Management Control Systems: Formal Control System, Informal Contro l System Ã¢â¬â Subsystems and Components of Management Control Systems: Formal Control Process, Informal Control Process Chapter 2: Approaches to Management Control Systems: Cybernetic Approach to Management Control Systems: Characteristics of a Cybernetic System, Cybernetic Paradigm andRead MoreStrategic Human Resource Management View.Pdf Uploaded Successfully133347 Words Ã |Ã 534 Pages.............. 446 NOTES.................................................................. 451 Strategy Implementation: Reward and Development Systems...................................................................452 STRATEGICALLY ORIENTED PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS ...................................... 467 STRATEGICALLY ORIENTED COMPENSATION SYSTEMS .............................................................. 480 EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT..................................... 499 SUMMARY.Read MoreBrand Building Blocks96400 Words Ã |Ã 386 Pagesdynamics. There is also an enhanced moti vation to copy anything that is successful, in part because the risks of copying are offset by the difficulty of coming up with brilliant new alternatives. 3. Fragmenting Markets And Media At one time, being consistent across media and markets was easy. There were a limited number of media options and only a few national media vehicles. Mass markets were the norm, and microsegmentation did not exist. Brand managers now face a very different environmentRead MoreCloud Computing Security67046 Words Ã |Ã 269 PagesMatrix, Consensus Assessments Initiative, Trusted Cloud Initiative, and GRC Stack Initiative and ties in the various CSA activities into one comprehensive C-level best practice. The Security Guidance v3.0 will serve as the gateway to emerging standards being Ã ©2011 CLOUD SECURITY ALLIANCE | 6 SECURITY GUIDANCE FOR CRITICAL AREAS OF FOCUS IN CLOUD COMPUTING V3.0 developed in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s standards organization and is designed to serve as an executive-level primer to any organization seeking a secureRead MoreContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words Ã |Ã 846 Pagescapabilities rather than making artificial distinctions between what is acceptable and what is not. He also has contributed widely to the accounting literature, taking forward the British tradition of economic theorizing in financial accounting as well as being a constant source of creative thinking in the management accounting field. Michael has also contributed in a number of different institutional arenas: the academic, of course, but also those of the profession and the wider public sphere. Ever helpfulRead MoreProject Managment Case Studies214937 Words Ã |Ã 860 Pageswas allocated for ads in professional journals. Most of Clark s advertising and marketing funds were allocated to the two semiannual home and garden trade shows and the annual builders tr ade show. One large builder could purchase more than 5,000 components for the furnishing of one newly constructed hotel or one apartment complex. Missing an opportunity to display the new products at these trade shows could easily result in a sixto twelve-month window of lost revenue. CULTURE Clark Faucet hadRead MoreStrategic Marketing Management337596 Words Ã |Ã 1351 PagesStrategic Marketing Management Dedication This book is dedicated to the authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ wives Ã¢â¬â Gillian and Rosie Ã¢â¬â and to Ben Gilligan for their support while it was being written. Acknowledgements Our thanks go to Janice Nunn for all the effort that she put in to the preparation of the manuscript. Strategic Marketing Management Planning, implementation and control Third edition Richard M.S. Wilson Emeritus Professor of Business Administration The Business School Loughborough University Read MoreManagement Course: MbaÃ¢Ëâ10 General Management215330 Words Ã |Ã 862 Pagesinfluenced by the brutally competitive global economy in which organizations do not have any particular geographic identity or travel under any particular national passport? What will be the effect of the rapid gyrations in markets that emphasize the difficulties that accounting practices face in determining true performance costs and that forecasting programs confront in establishing the economic determinants of corporate planning? In addition to these challenges, many analytical and strategic evaluationRead MoreGsk Annual Report 2010135604 Words Ã |Ã 543 PagesContents Business review P08Ã¢â¬âP57 Governance and remuneration P58Ã¢â¬âP101 Financial statements P102Ã¢â¬âP191 Shareholder information P192Ã¢â¬âP212 Business review 2010 Performance overview Research and development Pipeline summary Products, competition and intellectual property Regulation Manufacturing and supply World market GSK sales performance Segment reviews Responsible business Financial review 2010 Financial position and resources Financial review 2009 Risk factors Governance and remuneration Our Board
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss Whether Charlie Has A Good Case Against Enviropro Pty? Answer: Introducation In this question, the issue is if Charlie has a claim against EnviroPro Pty Ltd. in view of the general rules of contract law, including the Sale of Goods Act (Vic). This issue arises due to the fact that a large sign was present at the gate of the company according to which the liability of EnviroPro Pty Ltd. has been excluded regarding any damages suffered by the consumers apart from the replacement of the goods if it has been proved that the goods were faulty when they were sold. Rule: It needs to be noted that the Sale of Goods Act (Vic), applies only in cases of sale of goods. Moreover, a distinction is made by this legislation regarding the consumer and non-consumer contracts. Therefore, when a consumer contract is involved, accounting to this legislation the terms similar to the terms that can be implied under the Trade Practices Act are also applicable to such contracts (Trade Practices Commission v Radio World Pty Ltd., 1989). The provisions of this legislation apply only to the contracts that are found in Victoria. However, other states also have similar legislation applying research contracts. The Sale of Goods Act defines a consumer contract. According to this provision, any contract for sale of goods worth less than $20,000 or when the contract deals with the goods that are generally sold for personal, domestic or household purposes. On the other hand, when the goods were not sold for being resold or used as input in the process of manufacture, it i s also a consumer contract. In this way, certain terms can be implied under the Sale of Goods Act regarding the consumer contracts. Among these terms, there is a term according to which the goods sold by the traders should match the description, particularly when the sale is by description. These implied terms are present in the contract for sale of goods. In cases where the consumer has expressly or impliedly told reseller, the purpose for purchasing the goods. In the same way, these terms can be implied when the circumstances are of the nature that the seller is aware of or should have been aware of the fact that the consumer depends on the skill or judgment of the trader. It has been mentioned in section 20 of this legislation that an implied condition is applicable according to which the goods sold should be fit for purpose in such a case. It is worth mentioning that the requirement of the goods being fit for purpose overlaps with another implied condition according to which the goods should be of merchantable quality. In Griffiths v Peter Conway , the court has expressed the opinion that the buyer needs to tell the particular purpose for purchasing the goods. Application: Enviro Pty Ltd. had placed a large sign at the gate. It has been mentioned in this note is that the company cannot be held liable for any damages apart from replacing the goods, that too, in cases where the goods were quality at the time of sale. On the other hand, Charlie had informed the salesperson that he was looking for a good source of drinking water and asked if Clean Aqua was a good product for this purpose. The salesman gave an assurance to Charlie that Clean Aqua was a good product for this purpose. On the other hand, in reality, the water produced by this device was not fit for drinking. After consuming the water for some time, Charlie falls sick. As a result of these illness, he is forced to quit work for five weeks. He also develops irritable bowels syndrome, which will have any effect on his quality of life for long-term. Consequently, it can be said in this case that a breach of contract has taken place. in view of the above-mentioned reasons, it is clear that Charlie can sue Enviro Pty Ltd in the waters with the general rules of contract law and the provisions of Sale of Goods Act (Vic) The question that needs to be decided here is to see if a claim can be initiated by Charlie against Clean Aqua Pty Ltd. Charlie had to suffer injuries and it has to be seen if the company can be held liable under the strict laibility that has been imposed on manufacturers by the Australian Consumer Law. Rule: The Australian Consumer Law is a part of competition and consumer Act, 2010. According to this legislation, it is the responsibility of the manufacturers to treat the consumers fairly. On the other hand, if it is found that a particular management or supplier has breached a statutory guarantee provided to the consumers by the ACL, such manufacturer is liable for a strict liability offense. In view of the strict liability of the manufacturers, a breach is possible even in the absence of any negligence by the manufacturers. The consumer guarantees are a part of strict liability offense, which have been introduced for the purpose of making sure that the manufacturers always considered the expectations of the consumers also. In this regard, usually the strict liability provisions of ACL are applicable for manufacturers who have supplied goods in trade or commerce (Haros v Linfox Australia Pty Ltd., 2012). The ACL provides that in such cases, the manufacturer can be described as the company importing the goods, assembling the goods or the company that has used its brand name of the company that was promoted as the manufacturer (Keays v J P Morgan Administrative Services Australia Ltd., 2011). It can be considered that a safety defect is present in case of particular goods if the safety level marketing goods is not up to the mark that can be generally expected. Although the level of safety that is expected from particular goods can vary in different cases, ultimately, the court as the responsibility of deciding if a safety defect was present in the goods or not. Application: As a result of the legal rules mentioned above, the strict liability provisions of ACL required that there can be a breach of these provisions even in cases where the manufacturer was not negligent at all. Due to this reason, in the present case, also Clean Aqua Pty Ltd can be held liable for breaching the statutory guarantees mentioned in the ACL. Are these grounds, Charlie can bring a claim against the company regarding the damages that were suffered by him due to this breach. The statutory guarantees of ACL also include the guarantee according to which the goods should be fit for purpose. Similarly the goods should also comply with description. For example, in this case, Charlie wanted a product produced drinking water from waste water. On the other hand, the water of Clean Aqua was not fit to be used for drinking. Guess what could only be used for gardening, swimming pools etc. Therefore, it is clear that this territory guarantee has been breached in this case. Consequently, a claim can be initiated by Charlie against Clean Aqua Pty Ltd. References Griffiths v Peter Conway Ltd  1 All ER 685 Haros v Linfox Australia Pty Ltd (2012) 287 ALR 507 Keays v J P Morgan Administrative Services Australia Limited  FCA 358 Trade Practices Commission v Radio World Pty Ltd (1989) 16 IPR 407 management. Australian Consumer Law Schedule 2 Australian Competition and Consumer Act 2010 Sale of Goods Act (Victoria) 1958
Monday, April 6, 2020
Interview The researcher succeeded to carry out an interview that involved two employees who work at Delta Air Lines, Inc. The two individuals gave different views regarding motivation and leadership approaches practiced by the management of Delta Air Line. The two respondents were referred to as person X and person Y in this research, for purposes of anonymity, which was necessary to gather unbiased information from the two individuals.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on HRM for the Service Industries specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In relation to motivation, person X pointed out that Delta Airline was a good company to work with since it recognizes the performance of employees. Specifically, he mentioned the Chairman Club, which was established with an aim of giving recognition to best performing employees. However, person Y was not happy about the role Delta Air Lines. She argued that Delta Airline benefitted m uch from recognition in relation to employees. Person Y emphasized that recognition benefited the company through low cost of operations while employees continued to suffer since they were given paltry salaries (Creswell 1998, p. 12). The two respondents showed similar reactions in relation to leadership approaches. Both person X and Y said that operating manuals provided by the management team enabled Delta Air Lines to attain excellent performance. They claimed that operating manuals issued to every department enabled the company to achieve its predetermined objectives. This is because operating manuals ensured that each department worked hard to achieve the set operating standards. Person Y accentuated that Passengers Service Manual, which is used by Customer Service department to track services delivered to clients, enabled Delta Air Lines to attain admirable performance. Introduction Hospitality industry is classified in the contemporary world as the highest earning industry. A number of scholars and businesspersons refer to it as a billionaire industry. Considering that manufacturing era is gone, it is no doubt that we are living in an era characterized by the service industry. The service industry is broad and mainly encompasses food, service delivery and accommodation related sectors of the economy. Lodging, transportation, tourism, entertainment and restaurants among other segments fall within hospitality industry.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hospitality industry chiefly depends on leisure time and disposable income. Although hospitality industry involves several groups that deal with maintenance of company facilities, operations as well as management, it is confirmed beyond reasonable doubt that managing employees remains a key aspect towards improving the level of performance for a range of companies in the hospitality industry. This ha s compelled several managements in the service industry to come up with effective leadership approaches that aim at improving performance of employees, with diverse expertise and abilities. Different techniques of motivating employees are devised on daily basis hoping that the level of performance would significantly improve at workplace. Delta Airlines considers a number of management styles including giving handsome package to its employees, with an intention of improving its airline services as well as revenue. Furthermore, Delta Airlines endeavors to improve the level of returns for its major and minor investors. In addition, Delta Airlines Company ensures that customers choosing the services of the company experience the most appealing flights that would attract them the second time they would be traveling. Such aspects include best entertainment, executive seats and offering flights at affordable prices (Bratton Gold 2007, p. 67). Delta Air Lines, Inc. Delta Air Lines is amon gst the competitive airline companies in the U.S. With its headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, Delta operates at domestic and international markets. Due to its aggressive strategies, the company has grown rapidly and today, it claims 11% of the market share. Delta Air Lines is popularly known worldwide for its busiest hub. Delta Air Lines hub, which is based at the Hart-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, serves an average of 88 million passengers every year. Currently, this airline company has about 716 aircrafts, which operate at local markets as well as international markets. This makes Delta Air Lines the largest airline company based on the size of its fleet. In total, Delta Air Lines operates in about 247 destinations, which are located in both the U.S. and elsewhere in other foreign countries. Delta Air Lines closed the financial year 2010 with revenue of 31.8 billion. Its assets stood at 43.2 billion at the end of the fiscal year 2010.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on HRM for the Service Industries specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This indicated a strong performance for Delta Air Lines as compared to its counterparts at local and foreign markets. Perhaps, its financial strength over and above quality services would be attributed to its effective management team. Delta Air Lines Management Team and Strategies Richard Anderson leads delta Air Lines as its Chief Executive Officer. Edward Bastian acts as its president while Michael Campbell is the Executive Vice President and chiefly deals with the Human Resources and Labor Relations. Other top personalities include Stephen Gorman who is the chief operating officer; Glen Hauestein the network planning and revenue management, Hank Halter the financial officer, Holden Shannon the corporate strategy and real estate leader, John Walker the corporate communications director, and Theresa Wise the chief information officer. Richard Anderson ensures that Delta Air Lines maintains its competitive edge in the airline industry by embracing aggressive strategies such as those related to reducing fares, commonly referred to as cost leadership strategy. In addition, the management ensures that effectual measures are set, which merely ensures that investors get high returns for their investments. Employees are as well motivated with diverse incentives such as high salaries and long lasting employment contracts. Strategies are also put in place to ensure that its services are expanded to other emerging markets. Delta Air Line traditional approach of expansion focused on acquisition of other companies at the market. For instance, in 1972, Delta successfully acquired Northeast Airlines. Later on in 1986, Delta acquired Western Airlines. However, in 1994, Delta realized that airline industry had become increasingly competitive and needed contemporary approaches to maintain its competitive edge in the turbulent market environment. Consequently, Delta Air Lines sought to restructuring and streamlining its operations. The new package involved reducing the costs of operations as well as reducing the flight-fare price. Leadership Leadership is defined by a good number of scholars as ability to influence employees in an organization towards attaining predetermined goals and objectives. It is also defined as the ability of an organization to align individuals within the organization in order to achieve set targets.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It also aims at empowering employees with necessary skills and tools to undertake required actions that would meet the common goals set by the management. Although there are arguments concerning whether leaders are made or born, it has been discovered that managers and leaders depict different characteristics. Leaders are said to be innovate, original, people oriented, inspiring, developing and setting long-range perspectives. Leaders frequently challenge the status quo as well as doing right things always among other characteristics. This helps them to convene short term and long-term objectives of the organization. On the other hand, managers rely much on the regulations and rules of the organization to administer policies that encourage employees to focus on achieving the set targets (Storey 2007, p. 102). Managers are perceived as people who are fond of copying, maintaining, focusing on structures and systems, relying much on control and regulations, and more importantly meeting the objectives of an organization. Their characteristics also include, but not limited to short-range view, eyeing the bottom line, imitating previous approaches of management, accepting status quo and doing things right. What fascinates scholars and perhaps what exactly distinguish managers from leaders relates to Ã¢â¬ËhowÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËwhenÃ¢â¬â¢ questions. Leaders frequently ask themselves Ã¢â¬ËwhatÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËwhysÃ¢â¬â¢ sort of questions. These are common aspects that distinguish the originality displayed by leadership and imitation aspects characterized by managers. A number of theories have been put forward to explain characteristics of different leaders. Trait Theory Trait theory explains that individuals are born either with leadership characteristics or without. Trait theory focuses on several factors that distinguish leaders from non-leaders. The factors include individual personality, socialization process, physical characteristics and intelligence. Behavioral theory The behavioral theory relates to the ability to initiate a particular system and coming up with some considerations over an event. This would refer to the orientation of the leader regarding the aims and responsibilities of employees. Mangers may perhaps be workers oriented, which could mean that they are concerned more about employees. Task orientation could mean that a firm is more concerned about production levels. Fielder contingency model Fielder contingency model states that an effective team relies on an effectual match between the approach of a leader interacting with employees and the extent to which the environment gives a leader the authority to control and influence his or her subordinates. According to Fielder, the environment or situation refers to the relationship between leaders and staff members. Logically, it refers to the confidence and respect built between a leader and his or her followers. The situation refers to the task structure and the pow er position. Power position refers to the level of authority that is mostly derived from the position of the leader within the organizational system (Winstanley Woodall 2000, p. 112). Fielder affirms that good relations between staff members and their leaders characterize a favorable situation, affective structure of tasks and a powerful position of a manager in an organization. Path Goal Theory This theory relates environmental and subordinate contingency aspects to leadership traits. Path goal theory argues that performance or outcomes depend on traits associated with leadership behavior such as directives, supportive and perceptive features in relation to subordinate and environmental contingency aspects. Subordinate contingency features include locus of control, individual experiences and ones perceived ability and competence. On the other hand, situational contingency features include structures of job assignments, formality of systems and policies, as well as team members. Ch arismatic leaders Charismatic leaders portray features that have considerable influence on performance of subordinates. This type of leaders are said to portray different characteristics from those of other leaders. To begin with, charismatic leaders depict self-confidence. Self-confidence is displayed by their total confidence in their policies and competence. A vision is also another significant feature, which brings about confidence that would lead to a better future rather than relying on an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s status quo. A leader should ensure that there is a broad margin between the current status quo and the set goals or objectives. Charismatic leaders are also recognized for their outstanding abilities in articulating vision. They are able to explain and describe vision in a way that employees understand without difficulties. This assists in avoiding issues related to confusions and doubts. However, to articulate vision, a visionary leader should understand his or her emp loyees adequately. Charismatic leader should have high levels of commitment and high personal risk that help organizations in achieving pragmatic goals within a predetermined period. Charming leaders frequently depict behavior that is different from conventional or normal traits of ordinary managers and employees. Although these behaviors appear different from those of common leaders, followers are easily lured to follow such behaviors, especially in the event that a leader becomes successful with his or her unique style of management (Legge1998, p. 56). Other major characteristics displayed by appealing leaders include realistic evaluation of business environments in relation to constraints and resources and coming up with pragmatic strategies. Generally, charismatic leaders are perceived as aspects of radical change as opposed to maintaining organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s status quo. Relationship between transactional and transformational leaders Several reputable scholars in the field of management have identified distinguishing factors between transactional and transformational leaders. It is believed that old management style was characterized by transactional kind of leadership. However, because of dynamic and competitive business environment, contemporary type of management associates itself with transformational leadership. Transactional leaders Transformational leaders recognize achievements that ensure employees are rewarded in accordance to their level of performance. The management should always identify the disparity existing between performance and predetermined policies. This would help in initiating corrective actions and responses. A more contradicting feature as regards to transactional leadership is its passive system. Passive approach refers to intervening situations when standards tend to fall below or deviate from the track. Transactional leader would assign already laid down tasks and responsibilities to different departments. However, they attem pt to avoid making major and minor decisions regarding the operations of the organization. Transformation leaders Scholars and managements term transformational leadership as contemporary approach (Beardwell Claydon 2007, p. 83). Transformational leaders are charismatic and would occasionally provide followers with realistic vision and mission, which eventually earns them respect and trust. They are too inspiring since they communicate high expectations to their subordinates, use symbols to express directions and targets of organizations. Their level of intelligence is proved by their high level of rationality, as well as extra-ordinary logics mostly expressed in their analytical abilities, especially during problem solving. Transformational leaders differ from their transactional leaders for the reason that they are able to give personal attention to their employees apart from coaching and advising employees personally. What it takes to be an effectual and successful leader What i t takes to be an effective leader remains a contentious issue in the contemporary world of business. However, a number of observable studies have distinguished effective leaders from ineffective leaders. Effective leaders are seen communicating routinely. Their communication is associated with exchanging information and frequent handling of paperwork. Effective managers as well practice traditional management, which is merely known for its controlling, decision-making and planning facets. More importantly, effective management is characterized by networking where leaders are seen often interacting with outsiders in addition to sharing social, economical and political issues with several groups. Regarding the human resource management, successful leaders are seen motivating and rewarding their subordinates on a continuous basis. Furthermore, training and developing careers ensures that employees meet standards set by the firm. Nevertheless, transformational leaders manage conflicts a rising successfully. Motivation Motivation is a process that intends to elicit, control, manage or sustain an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. Motivation is categorized as either intrinsic or extrinsic. Extrinsic motivation is associated with external factors. For instance, a student who is interested in acquiring certain knowledge in a given field for not only getting good grades but also gaining mastery is most likely motivated by intrinsic factors. On the other hand, it would be an extrinsic motivation if an employee were encouraged to perform well at work place by increasing salary or providing other incentives. It is therefore true that employee performance depends heavily on motivation. Nevertheless, to realize good performance through motivation, employees should be equipped with necessary skills, equipments, supplies, time and ability (Goleman1998, p. 72). A motivating agent is principally determined by the needs of an employee. Although money is generally regarded as the main motivator, it is not the only employee motivator. Money would act as a motivator if it were able to meet individualÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and desires. In addition, an employee should believe that he or she is in a position to achieve monetary rewards offered by the organization. Generally, financial incentives offered by a range of organizations include production bonus systems, commission, gain sharing, group incentive plans, profit sharing, piecework systems among others. Because financial incentives can be limiting to any business that intends to motivate its employees, other approaches satisfy employees such as good contact with consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ brand, job enlargement and rotations. In many cases, organizations motivate employees by giving rewards that have value, providing rewards based on individual performance, treating individual staff members personally, encouraging staff participation and providing immediate feedback regarding employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance. Since motivation conc erns itself with giving incentives to employees with an aim of enforcing compliance, most supervisors frequently use incentives to ensure that employees meet the objectives and goals set by management. With this regard, it would be beneficial if supervisors would have necessary skills regarding employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation. Managers influence the behavior of employees using various methods. However, the commonly used incentives include flextime and job sharing. Flextime is a strategy used in organizations, which allow individuals to choose when to work for 8 hours assigned in a day or 40 hours in a week. Conversely, job sharing refers to an arrangement in which two individuals working part-time choose to share tasks of a full-time job. Theories of motivation MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of needs Maslow states that a number of unmet needs motivate individuals. In accordance to MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, needs which motivates people fall into five categories. They include physiological need s, security, social needs such as love, needs relating to esteem and self-actualization needs. Physiological needs are basic needs, which an individual requires for survival. Security needs refer to protection and safety. Social needs are those associated with the need for companionship, as well as love. Individuals in the society desire to be respected by their colleagues. This is popularly termed esteem needs. Self-actualization refers to a situation where an individual peruses the full measure of happiness. McClellandÃ¢â¬â¢s Achievement-Power-Affiliation Theory This theory states that people develop diverse needs via life experiences. The three needs classified by McClelland include the need for achievement, need for power and the need for affiliation. Need for achievement is oneÃ¢â¬â¢s aspiration to do better. Need for power is associated to ambition to manage, control and influence people. Need for affiliation is concerned about aspiration to sustain sociable relations. Alt hough people have all the above needs to some degree, strength of various needs depicts what motivates an employee or a worker (Mintzberg, Simons Basu 2002, p. 88). HertzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s Two-Factor Theory Hertzberg claims that both dissatisfaction and satisfaction are associated with dissimilar sources. In his argument, dissatisfaction is seen to result from lack of hygiene factors such as companionship and handsome salary package. Satisfaction, on the other hand, results from existence of motivating dynamics such as fortunate prospects. VroomÃ¢â¬â¢s Expectancy-Valence Theory Vroom proved that individuals do whatever they do in life with an aim of satisfying their needs. His argument was based on explaining the degree of an individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ level of motivation. According to VroomÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, motivation depends on both valence and expectancy. Valence refers to the importance that someone places on result of a specified behavior whereas expectancy is the perception that a cert ain behavior would lead to a given result. In many circumstances, people are predominantly motivated to seek out outcomes that they value. They also believe that such outcomes are achievable. Individual members have different perception as regards to rewards, as well as whether they are in a position to attain the set up rewards. As a result, every employee determines personally the value of rewards and the capability of attaining the results. Since individuals in an organization cannot be generalized, it would be prudent for supervisors to study the needs and abilities of employees within an organization. SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Reinforcement Theory According to Skinner, people tend to do a particular thing hoping that it would lead to a desirable consequence. The same people would avoid things that may lead to undesirable consequences. For instance, people desire doing things that may give them praises from either fellow colleagues or the management team at work place. The management may influence the behavior of individuals by responding to traits technically. Skinner says that consequences can be classified as either reinforcement or punishment. Reinforcement is a positive behavioral consequence. In other words, reinforcement refers to favorable consequences or preferred behavior. Conversely, punishment is also referred to as negative consequence. Most supervisors tend to stop unfavorable behavior using various approaches, such as demotion and firing employees. Modifying EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ Behavior Various organizations use either punishment or reinforcement in modifying the behavior of employees. However, ineffectiveness of punishment, many organizations choose reinforcement. Reinforcement tends to result to positive and favorable behavior, which is desired by a firm whereas frequent use of punishment tends to instill a belief of inability among staff members (Nohria, Groysberg Eling 2008, p. 93). Since motivating factors are different among employees, the manag ement should learn individual motivating factors at personal level and design rewards as per their demands. In addition, the management should consider policies, regulations and labor contracts guiding the process of rewarding in an organization. Financial Incentives The Management assumes that money motivates employees to deliver a quality service. According to theories of motivation, finance is perceived as a motivator if it meets the demands and needs of employees. In particular, an individual earning paltry salary will highly be motivated by its increment. However, an employee who is comfortable with his or her salary may be motivated by other factors, such as achieving a sense of respect and personal esteem. As for finances, employees would be given financial incentives to make them meet or exceed certain set standards. Delta Air Lines: Leadership and Motivation ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢s Systems and Procedures Delta Air Lines has various departments with diverse systems. Delta Air Li nes management offers operating manuals that give standards to every department. The operating manual helps departments to monitor the performance of employees, as well as customers on a regular basis (Storey 2001, p. 57). The most important manual is the Passengers Service Manual, which is used by Customer Service department to track services delivered to clients. This has enabled employees to provide excellent services to their customers. Operating manual, on the other hand, enables the management to access updated performance, as well as easy references that would help in making major decisions concerning the performance of the company. The most important information provided by Passengers Service Manual includes passengersÃ¢â¬â¢ acceptance, refusal of passenger, ticketing and luggage acceptance. Delta Air Lines decided to post passengersÃ¢â¬â¢ information online where each employee can access it in a 24 hours clock to increase its efficiency. Moreover, the management has mad e sure that employees stand a chance to access information at home provided one is connected to DeltaÃ¢â¬â¢s intranet. Management performance measures A website that is solely designed by Delta for measuring and controlling performance would help in monitoring and improving services offered by Delta Air Lines. The website categorically provides a section, which indicates standards expected by the management. The website also provides essential applications for monitoring performance of various departments. In addition, the website provides a section through which the management is able to monitor procedures for giving rewards to subordinates. The key performance indicators used by Delta include measure of flights take off, lost baggage for every 1000 passengers, airplanes damages and injuries sustained by employees while at work place or during official working hours. This information is to be collected from various airports, combined and analyzed on a yearly basis to estimate the overall performance of the management team. Performance leaders Performance leaders are concerned about assigning tasks to different employees and ensuring that operations are covered in entirety. Generally, they normally guide employees on various work processes and allocate diverse resources as per the requirement of the job. Performance leaders frequently ensure that workers arrive on time at the work place, apart from ensuring that team members complete assigned responsibilities within predetermined time and as per the set standards. In many cases, performance leaders are seen to handle customersÃ¢â¬â¢ conflict either internally or externally. Training and employees performance improvement Delta Air Lines provides sufficient training to its employees with an aim of improving its services. The management emphasizes on continuous training with an objective of improving its service delivery. Delta Air Lines has some school training centers for pilots. A stringent policy relating to training pilots is aimed at improving the standards of its flights. In fact, customer department statement aims at empowering employees with adequate experience and skills in order to provide excellent service. Delta Air Lines offers a reimbursement of $2000 for tuition fee. In addition, the company provides an e-learning technology, which helps to improve employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance for those present at workplace. Employees Rewarding The management concluded that individual recognition is the most effective way of motivating employees. Delta Air Lines recognize that the most important aspect in an individual is his or her attitude. According to Delta Air LinesÃ¢â¬â¢ management, for employees to be instilled with positive attitude, his or her morale should be improved. During difficult financial times, recognition of employees has helped to reduce operation costs associated with employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ rewarding. The management developed Delta Gaining Altitude program, which enabl es employees to be recognized and rewarded for their services. Delta Gaining Attitude program helps to instill a positive approach to its employees. This is aimed at motivating employees by influencing their behavior positively. As a strategy, Delta Air Lines management has empowered employees to recognize and comment on the performance of their colleagues. Currently, Delta Air Lines provides cumulative points for purchasing products, which has been entirely welcomed by all staff members. Delta Air Lines recognizes employee anniversaries where it begins with the first year and then performed at an interval of 5 years. On completing ten years, an employee would receive a recognition letter from the CEO. Chairman Club was established with an aim of giving recognition to best performing employees. On average, the Chairman Club initiates 102 staff members who have contributed enormously to the success of Delta Air Lines. Such employees are to be chosen by their workmates and confirmed b y the management. However, an individual should be registered at a site provided by Chairman Club in order to receive recommendation for good performance. Stiff competition at the Airline Industry Delta Air Lines faces tough competition in the airline industry both at local and international markets. Stiff competition in the market is due to the presence of major airlines that offer excellent services. Recently, a number of airline companies have come up with cost-leadership strategies, which have forced Delta to respond equally by lowering its initial fare prices. The major foreign rivals of Delta Air Lines include Singapore Airline, Cathay Pacific and Air New Zealand. However, Delta is responding to the competition through increasingly improving its services. Recommendation Although policies and structures of an organization are important in determining the performance of an entity, it has been recognized by a number of scholars that human aspect is crucial in determining the effe ctiveness and efficiency of a firm (Woods West 2010, p. 75). Human beings control machines and other physical facilities including computers and therefore, a slight change in human behavior might highly affect results of a particular process or activity. Any organization should ensure that it has effectual management team, as well as competent employees in ensure that quality services are provided as per the set standards. Since Delta faces stiff competition in the airline industry, it would be prudent to come up with specific measures that would ensure excellent services are offered to its esteem clients. Such activities would require well laid strategies, which would particularly generate an effective leader. Services improvement, such as fitting aircrafts with executive seats, would help Delta attract a number of customers. Generally, customers require comfort, such as good entertainment and provision of quality and affordable meals and drinks both inside the aircraft and at the airport waiting lounge. Although cost-leadership strategy has been a major strategy used by airline companies, it would be advisable not to lower prices beyond certain levels. This would lead to losses. To ensure that excellence is maintained at Delta Air Lines, the management should provide more appealing rewards that would enhance productivity of employees. For instance, employees should be provided with salary increment, though it has to be realistic to avoid exorbitant operational expenses. Delta is embracing recognition as opposed to other rewards approaches. Although this has an effect of reducing costs associated with rewards, such rewards would have less impact on employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s level of performance. Delta should in fact consider other non-financial rewarding techniques such as promotions, job rotation and employee empowerment. Such approaches are likely to facilitate high levels of performance amongst staff members. Conclusion This paper has covered a number of issues r egarding leadership and motivation. It has solely discussed issues pertaining to leadership and motivation practices at Delta Air Lines. To understand fully the implication of effective leadership and motivating approaches that would finally help in improving the level of performance at Delta Air Lines, this paper has discussed various types of leaderships, as well as theories that were put forward by different scholars. It has also given more details concerning motivation and related theories. From various reading materials and various managerial perspectives in different institutions including Delta Air Lines, it is confirmed that effective leadership is one that has routine and effectual communication processes. Leaders should communicate complex aspects in a more simple way. They should understand the proficiency and qualifications of individual employees in order to assign jobs accurately. Competent leaders ensure that they give pragmatic directions and vision, which assists in attaining the set objectives and standards. Although traditional modes of management are not popular in the contemporary world of business, it is evident that planning, controlling and monitoring remain key factors in improving employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ level of performance. In addition, motivation factors, such as offering financial incentives, are mostly used by a range of entities to increase the level of productivity among its employees. However, it is concluded that non-financial incentives to a large extend help in reducing the cost of operations among various organizations such as Delta Air Line. Delta Air Lines has a number of rewarding approaches. However, it considerably embraces recognition technique as opposed to rewarding systems. Recognition is initiated by allowing employees to give comments online. Chairman Club helps to identify some individuals who are rewarded after recognizing their great contribution towards the overall performance of the company. Moreover, Delta Air L ine continues to show competent leadership through the websites that are chiefly designed for monitoring performance of various departments. For instance, customer service department is provided with operation manuals where it records all data concerning customers. This helps in keeping track and controlling operations at Delta Air Lines. List of References Beardwell, J Claydon, T 2007, Human Resource Management: A Contemporary Approach, Prentice Hall, Harlow. Bratton, J Gold, J 2007, Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice, Palgrave, Basingstoke. Creswell, J 1998, Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Traditions, Sage, California. Goleman, D 1998, Working with Emotional Intelligence, Bloomsbury, London. Legge, K 1998, Is HRM ethical? Can HRM be ethical? Sage, London. Mintzberg, H, Simons, R Basu, K 2002, Ã¢â¬Å"Beyond SelfishnessÃ¢â¬ , Sloan Management Review, Issue 2, no. 1. Nohria, N, Groysberg, B Eling, L 2008, Ã¢â¬Å"Employee Motivation: A po werful new modelÃ¢â¬ , Harvard Business Review, Issue 4, no. 6. Storey, J 2001, Human Resource Management; A Critical Text, Thomson Learning, Padstow. Storey, J 2007, Human Resource Management: A critical text, Thomson Learning, Padstow. Winstanley, D Woodall, J 2000, Ethical issues in contemporary human resource management, Palgrave, Mendham. Woods, S West, M 2010, Organizational Culture, Climate and Change, Cengage, New York. This report on HRM for the Service Industries was written and submitted by user Sage Durham to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
The Right to Clean Water Essay Example The Right to Clean Water Essay The Right to Clean Water Essay he Right to Access Clean Water Only 2% of earthÃ¢â¬â¢s water is available for human consumption because 98% of the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s water is frozen in ice caps, flowing in the ocean, and even in animal bodies, etc. More than a billion people have no decent water supply, adding to that about 2. 4 billion people do not have proper sanitation; therefore more than 60% of global illness is linked to the lack of healthy water. Water is a natural source of nature and access to clean water should not be used as a traded or withheld good in economic markets. While a developed country is using water to water their gardens, golf courses and swimming in their pools, the problem only gets worse because of income inequality increases between the countries. South Africa specifically has been having many problems when it comes to water privatization. Everything needs water, therefore it should be a common good shared by everyone and is the responsibility of governments to help their people access clean water and should not be looked upon as opportunities to make money. This problem is for the government who are held responsible for their people and not private companies around the world who want to make money of whatever they can. Water is an essential source of life, but there are categories of water which includes fresh or salt water. Most of earthÃ¢â¬â¢s land roaming animals needs fresh water for survival, including 6. 7 billion people and their crops. The lack of fresh water makes a chain reaction of bad factors like illness, bad crops and unsanitary living conditions. Without water people cannot water their crops which leads to hunger, then bad health, and soon after illnesses that prevents them from working and going to school. It is easy to see why water is treated as an economic good because it has to be collected, managed, processed and supplied; it is a very expensive process that water goes through before it is clean and can be giving out to people to drink. Most private companies will provide water for a commercial return, but not without investment that will be much higher than publicly funded. The instituteÃ¢â¬â¢s fear that private, bottom-line-driven companies will not supply water to those who cannot afford to pay high prices is nevertheless clearly stated: Ã¢â¬ËThe water needs of the poor should not be left in the hands of profit-driven, transnational water corporations,Ã¢â¬ (IRIN). On the other hand, governments because of the interested in keeping their people safe usually prefer privatization so they can target places that ar e in the most need against money lucrative opportunities. Water companies have a tendency to play monopoly because they do not want to drive prices down or have the pressure to drive up equalities. Water is something everyone needs and should not be treated as a game of how to make the most money of it, but should be thought as how to help people with it. There is so much water yet only a small percentage can be used, so it is very precious and cannot be used as a way to make money of what is needed most. Companies are taking full advantage where they can within developed countries to make water a purely economic good, but that is 78% that does not live in poverty. It is only 22% of people who absolute need water yet the water subsidies are not essential to them. Women in South Africa would rather walk long distances to get water than pay for water that they could get for free even if it harmful to drink. Not that they do not want to pay for the water but do not have the money to do so. 1. 7 billion People live in poverty, where will they get the money to buy water, if they did have money, then what about all the other things that need to buy for a living? This is not to say that water should be completely free, but it should be made affordable to all. In South Africa alone there are more than 20 million people without sufficient sanitation services and another 15 million without a safe water supply. Most private companies do not care much about the environment because their worries are more about their shareholders. To have maximum profits they are more likely to find every way they can do reduce cost even if it means less care for the environment. The well being of the ecosystem and biodiversity is almost impossible to calculate so private companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ would rather just use it as just another resource to be exploited, which is easier than protecting it. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s hard enough getting fresh water in South Africa, but it gets even harder when some of their water is filled with acid because of the left over and abandoned mines in South Africa. Ã¢â¬Å"A study by Naicker et al. (2003) revealed that the groundwater in the mining district of Johannesburg, South Africa, is heavily contaminated and acidified as a result of oxidation of pyrite contained in the mine tailings sups, and has elected concentrations of heavy metals. The polluted groundwater is discharging into streams in the area and contributes up to 20% of stream flow, causing an increase the acidity of the stream water. The affect of the contaminated water from the mine can persist for more than 10 km beyond the source,Ã¢â¬ (Naicker et al. , 2003). This problem is all due to the fact that companies do not care about the ecosystem, but they were to prevent this in the first place there would not be a problem now. To clean this problem wastes even more money that could have gone to bringing more water to the needed. South African governments have taken actions into their own hands with a strong commitment to serve water to those who need it most, which is everyone. There have been many improvements with accessing water supplies from the urban to rural areas. There has been a significant increase in supplying water to rural areas from 1990 to 2006; it went from 62% to 92%, but within the same time frame there has only been a 55% to 59% increase in achieving sanitation. The problem is a very complex and expensive solution and it all has to do with maintenance. The government can fix the problem, but finding enough funding for the problem is a large concern. Why should this even be a problem because more than 60%t of illness can be traced back to lack of clean water? Having that knowledge that un-sanitized water is the problem, it should be the number one concern and should be fixed right away, but yet it is not. There are only a handful of private companies that manage a water and waste utility in South Africa the Siza Water Company, Greater Nelspruit utility Company and Johannesburg Water. Even still, all three of the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ focus on bringing water to the land, but are not fully concentrated on achieving sanitation. It seems South Africa has some of the most horrendous experiences when it comes to water privatization. South Africa, in August of 2002 had the worst outbreak of cholera in history that started outside of Empangeni and this is all due to the lack of clean water. Ã¢â¬Å"ANC Water and Forestry minister Ronnie Kasrils has admitted that the outbreak would not have happened if free water had been available. Ã¢â¬ËThe problem is that when we try to implement cost-recovery, any of the poor cannot pay,Ã¢â¬ (wsww). Even with access to government-provided water, if it is not free the poor cannot pay the $4. 80. People died and got even sicker; Now they need health care to become better, which costs more money. This could all have been prevented if only water was free, a price anyone can afford. Water is a precious resource of life for everyone, but companies take the time and effort to make it only so they can make money because it is something that is needed. People are getting sicker because of the lack of clean water that the government should provide because it is an essential eed and it is the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to their people to give them what they need to keep healthy. More than 60% of health problems can be traced back to water, therefore it is an easy problem to prevent, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s not. With clean water we can reverse the cycle because with clean water illness levels decrease, therefore people can go to work or school. With work or school they can then take care of themselves and their family. Therefore water is a human right not a human privilege; everyone should have access to clean water for their health and for their future. Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Running Dry: the humanitarian impact of the global water crisis. Ã¢â¬ IRIN In-Depth October 2006. November 16, 2010 lt; irinnews. org/pdf/in-depth/Running-Dry-IRIN-In-Depth. pdfgt; Naicker, K. , Cukrowska, E. , amp; McCarthy, T. S. 2003. Acid mine drainage from gold mining activities in Johannesburg, South Africa and environs. Environmental Pollution 122, 29-40. Marshall, Leon. Ã¢â¬Å"Water Crisis Looms in South Africa. Ã¢â¬ National Geographic. November 5, 2010. November 15, 2010. lt;http://blogs. nationalgeographic. om/blogs/news/chiefeditor/2010/11/water-crisis-looms-in-south-africa. htmlgt; Ã¢â¬Å"Water privatization in South Africa. Ã¢â¬ Wikipedia. November 15, 2010. lt;http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Water_privatisation_in_South_Africagt; Ã¢â¬Å"Private Vs. PublicÃ¢â¬ Food and Water Watch. November 16, 2010. lt; foodandwaterwatch. org/water/private-vs-public/gt; Mason, Berry and Talbot, Chris. Ã¢â¬Å"What water privatization means for Africa. Ã¢â¬ Wor ld Socialist Web Site. September 7, 2002. November 15, 2010. lt; wsws. org/articles/2002/sep2002/wate-s07. shtmlgt;
Friday, February 21, 2020
Critically discuss the distinction between quality control and quality assurance - Essay Example If the team identifies a problem in a product, it makes the quality control department stop the production of that product for the time being not only to make required changes in the product but also to ensure that the product meets the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demands properly. Ã¢â¬Å"Quality assurance is the process of verifying or determining whether products or services meet or exceed expectationsÃ¢â¬ (Kietzman 2011). It is a process-driven approach towards achieving quality which requires specific steps to identify and attain goals. Quality assurance exceeds the customer expectations through a measurable and accountable process. The quality assurance team examines and tests the product manufacturing process in order to ensure excellence in every stage of the process by identify the defects and taking appropriate steps to remove those defects. Quality control involves such actions that assess and evaluate the manufacturing process of a product, whereas quality assurance involves such activities which ensure adequacy of the product development and quality maintenance processes. Quality control team focuses on finding defects in a product in order to remove them.